How to Prune Clematis Correctly by Group Type 1, 2 & 3
How and when to prune clematis for the best show
Clematis is a climbing plant that blossoms to create breath-taking scenery in the garden. The clematis plant has very many variations so it is possible to see many different colours in many different shapes and sizes from very large traditional flowers like that on Clematis multi Blue to small nodding yellow bellflowers often associated with early flowering varieties such as Bill Mackenzie. Many people are attracted to these plants due to their beauty and ability to survive through the seasons. For a beautiful clematis plant to prosper, regular but more importantly, correct pruning is needed.
There are various reasons as to why pruning is important. First, if the stems are left to run their own course, you will be left with decrepit stems. Decrepit stems, in turn, reduce the number of flowers that are to bloom. Secondly, pruning reduces the weight on the supporting structure. This ensures that the climbers don’t come crashing down due to excess weight. With the correct pruning, some varieties of clematis are able to support healthy stems capable of blooming through the summer and some will even flower early spring and again later in the season.
Quickstart pruning guide (detailed guide further down)
- Early flowering clematis is usually in group 1 and flower on the previous year’s growth and only need a light pruning after flowering.
- These large-flowered clematises usually flower late spring / early summer on the new growth which emerges from previous years growth and again in late summer on the tips of the current year’s growth. Prune clematis from group 2 in spring before they start into active growth, and again in early summer after the first flush of flowers. In general, only a light pruning is needed after flowering has finished.
- Group 3 is the easiest of clematis to prune as they simply need pruning to just above ground level in early spring to remove all the previous year’s growth. These flower summer and into autumn.
Remember if you know the name of your clematis, a quick google search will find the pruning group it belongs to.
Detailed pruning guide
The secret to efficient clematis pruning is to do it by the appointed flowering time. There are the 3 main pruning groups:
Group 1 Pruning
This group consists of the clematis that blooms early usually winter or early spring. These early bloomers are the ones that produce blooms on the previous season’s shoots so only a light pruning is needed. It is essential to prune these early bloomers after they have flowered in order to reduce the damage that may be caused by frost.
Most group 1 varieties such as The C. Alpina and C. Macropetala need minimal pruning as they don’t grow as vigorously and can just be pruned to keep them within the available growing space which is done in early spring after flowering. Young plants around a year or two old can be pruned to a good pair of buds about 8 – 12 inches above ground level to encourage bushier plants in the early stages. Once established a light pruning to keep them under control if perfect.
Group 2 pruning
The Large-flowered clematis rules this group. These plants flower in early to mid-summer and are usually a product of the previous season’s short shoots. This group needs pruning finesse compared to the other group. It is recommended to prune the large-flowered clematis before growth starts in late winter/ early spring. The aim is to thin out and detangle present stems to provide more room for growth.
When the first flowers start fading out in early summer, you are to prune again. You want to shorten the stems that produced the first flowers. This is to encourage new growth. Alternatively, you can prune the plants back severely in alternating years to control overgrown clematis.
Some of the species in this group include Clematis Florida, ‘The president’, Jackmanii Alba, Burma star, ‘General Sikorski’, ‘Vyvyan Pennell’ and Bees’ Jubilee’ among others.
Group 3 pruning
These are the summer and Autumn bloomers and flower on the current years growth and produce an amazing long lasting display. They are by far the easiest group to prune. The best time to prune this group is in spring before they start actively growing and the worst of the winter weather is over. This group that also includes herbaceous clematis can be cut back to a strong pair of buds around 20cm to 30cm above ground level. This removes all the years’ previous growth and provides enough room for new growth. Species that belong to this group include C. X durandii, C. orientalis, C. terniflora, Gipsy Queen’, Lady Betty Balfour, ‘Ville de Lyon’, and C. heracleifolia among others.
If you are not sure as to the species of the clematis and when to prune, it is preferable you do nothing until you see when it flowers which will give you an idea of the type of clematis. Once you know the variety you’re dealing with, you can prune accordingly depending on the time the clematis blooms.
If you know the variety
of clematis you have then a quick search on google will ‘pruning group’ after the name should help you determine the pruning group as most online nurseries will state the pruning group of the clematis they sell.